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CLIMATE CHANGE, CONFLICTS & MIGRATION IN THE HORN OF AFRICA

The question on the link between climate change and conflicts in the Horn of Africa has constantly come up as a factor in conflict and climate change dynamics at the regional and international levels. In order to address this matter, FES and PACJA have begun to engage stakeholders in the Horn of Africa to unpack the complexity of conflict and its relationship with climate change – how conflicts transcend borders and generally how the two issues can be weaved together.

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Climate Finance Thematic Working Group Case study

Introduction

Climate Finance Thematic Working Group (TWG) was formed to ensure accountability and to facilitate monitoring and tracking of climate finance flow in Kenya. Under the Kenya National Platform on Climate Governance, the group seeks to involve other civil society organizations and non-state actors in understanding and facilitating cross cutting information on Climate Finance Governance in Kenya.

 With support from CARE Kenya, TWG held a workshop in Taita Taveta County with an aim of enhancing capacities of the stakeholders on climate finance governance and improving their readiness for the green climate fund (GCF). The workshop spurred conversations on policies, legislations and laws that are relevant in the climate finance space, nationally and at the county level.

 The workshop identified the viable points of synergy that can ensure proper and effective linkages between the National Climate Change Action Plan [II] and Taita Taveta County Integrated Development Plan.

The Integrated Programme to Build Resilience to Climate Change and Adaptive Capacity of Vulnerable Communities in Kenya: A case of Taita Taveta

 The Adaptation Fund Programme is designed to enhance resilience and adaptive capacity to climate change in Taita Taveta County. The project aims to help communities within the county to respond to effects of Climate Change through integrated water management aimed at enhanced food security.

 Kenya was accredited by Adaptation Fund board to access finances from the Adaptation Fund in 2012 through the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA). The Authority developed a programme titled, Integrated Programme to Build Resilience to Climate Change and Adaptive Capacity of Vulnerable Communities in Kenya. The programme started in January 2016 and is being implemented in 14 Counties in Kenya.

 For effective implementation of the programme, a field implementation committee (FIC) benchmarks the project’s implementation. Each Executing Entity is required to conduct a baseline survey in order to establish benchmark/baseline level for the progress, at the beginning of the programme implementation. FIC is composed of representatives from National Environment Management Authority, Water Irrigations Department, county commissioner, County ecosystems conservator, World vision and school representatives.

 

One of the key initiatives that NEMA has initiated is construction of roof catchments (and water pans for rainwater harvesting for domestic and agricultural use. The objective of the programme is to establish infrastructure for water harvesting, storage and irrigation targeting 4 schools from each sub-county namely: Kajire Girls Secondary School, Mwakishime Primary School, Orkungu Primary School and Mgeno Primary School. The schools were selected through participatory consultation approach by the ministry of education and other stakeholders.  Each of the four schools will benefit from a ferro-cement water tank with a capacity of 50m3.

 Rainwater harvesting is particularly important for these groups because:

  • Rainwater can be used directly or stored for future use
  • Stored water can be used to revitalize the ground level water hence improve its quality
  • Stored water can be used to raise the level of ground water making it easily accessible.
  • Stored water prevents wells and tube wells from drying up hence increasing soil fertility
  • Harvesting rainwater checks surface run off of water and reduces soil erosion.

 

Each of the schools will also be given woodlots which will be planted by the students on the school

grounds. The woodlots will be beneficial to the school because:

  • When mature, they can be used as fuelwood or sold as timber to generate revenue for the school thereby reducing reliance on fuelwood from neighboring forest ecosystems;
  • The woodlots form a vital part of the schools’ environmental club and curriculum and act as a live demonstration for forestry and agriculture-related topics;
  • The trees can be sold as saplings to the surrounding community thereby generating income for the school;
  • Planted around the school, the trees will enhance the school’s beauty;
  • The trees will control soil erosion and water run-off.

For effective implementation of the programme, a field implementation committee (FIC) benchmarks the project’s implementation. Each Executing Entity is required to conduct a baseline survey in order to establish benchmark/baseline level for the progress, at the beginning of the programme implementation. FIC is composed of representatives from National Environment Management Authority, Water Irrigation Department, county commissioner, County ecosystems conservator, World vision and school representatives.

Other coastal counties implementing similar programmes are Kilifi and kwale which targets Mangrove and Coral reef rehabilitation. 

 

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Transforming Energy for a Clean and Sustainable Future in Africa,Discussion paper.

Energy is the key component in the mitigation response to combatting climate change. If dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate is to be avoided this century, a worldwide transition to renewable energy sources needs to take place urgently. The African continent is facing a particularly key moment in its development pathway, with a stark choice to be made between either following the same highcarbon path pursued by industrialized countries, or concentrating its growth on low-carbon climate resilient development. Demand for energy is exploding in Africa, as countries develop economically and per capita energy use rises as per capita incomes grow1. The continent has the natural resources required to provide renewable sources of energy, some of which are already being exploited. Global investments in renewable energy grew by 32 per cent between 2009 and 2010, to a record US$211 billion, with countries in Africa posting the highest percentage increase of all developing regions (excluding the emerging economies of Brazil, China and India). However there are still significant obstacles to the large scale and widespread provision of clean energy in Africa and a worrying dependence on fossil fuels remains. To transform the continent, economic growth must be decarbonized, which will require transformation of both energy policies and practices. A paradigm shift is needed, with a new approach that focuses on effective energy governance and the promotion of inclusive and sustainable growth. Choosing this path is essential both for the good of the planet and the development of Africa.

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Participation des organisations de la société civile aux processus REDD+ en Côte d’Ivoire, au Mozambique et au Cameroun,policy brief.FRENCH.

À l’échelle mondiale, la superficie forestière diminue au taux annuel le plus récent de 3,3 millions d’hectares entre 2010 et 2015 (Garzuglia, 2018). Les forêts jouent un rôle majeur en tant que réservoirs de carbone, la déforestation et la dégradation des forêts entraînent des émissions de gaz à effet de serre et réduisent la capacité des forêts à séquestrer le carbone, renforçant ainsi le réchauffement climatique.
La réduction des émissions résultant du déboisement et de la dégradation des forêts et le rôle de la conservation, de la gestion durable des forêts et du renforcement des stocks de carbone dans les pays en développement (REDD+) (voir encadré 1) est une initiative d’atténuation du changement climatique fondée sur des incitations financières conçues pour compenser les gouvernements nationaux et les acteurs sous-nationaux en échange de la réduction évidente des émissions de carbone dues à la déforestation et la dégradation forestière (CCNUCC 2010). REDD+ peut aider les pays à assurer une gestion durable des forêts et fournir des incitations pour s’attaquer à certains des principaux moteurs du déboisement et de la dégradation des forêts, tels que l’agriculture itinérante et la production et l’utilisation non durables et inefficaces du bois de feu.

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