BONN, Germany (PAMACC News) - The 2017 UN Climate Change Conference opens on Monday, with the aim of launching nations towards the next level of ambition needed to tackle global warming and put the world on a safer and more prosperous development path.
The Conference, coming just two years after the landmark adoption of the Paris Climate Change Agreement, will also further fuel momentum among cities, states, regions, territories, business and civil society in support of national climate action plans, the internationally-agreed temperature goal and the wider objectives of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
However, representatives from the African Civil Society Organisations under the umbrella of Pan African Climate Justice Alliance (PACJA) have called on all the parties to commit beyond their current level of emission targets in their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) to tackle the devastating climate change.
"All parties must pursue a low carbon development pathway to achieve the desired results," said Mithika Mwenda, the Secretary General - PACJA.
Extreme Weather Brings Fresh Urgency
Presided over by Frank Bainimarama, the Prime Minister of Fiji and the first small island developing state to hold this role, the conference comes against a backdrop of extreme weather events that have devastated the lives of millions of people in places like Asia, the Americas and the Caribbean.
“The human suffering caused by intensifying hurricanes, wildfires, droughts, floods and threats to food security caused by climate change means there is no time to waste,” said Mr Bainimarama, who takes over as President of the COP23 conference from Morocco during the opening.
“We must preserve the global consensus for decisive action enshrined in the Paris Agreement and aim for the most ambitious part of that target – to limit the global average temperature rise to 1.5 degrees above that of the pre-industrial age,” he said.
“Wherever we live, we are all vulnerable and need to act. Fiji is helping build a Grand Coalition for decisive, coordinated action by governments at every level, by civil society, the private sector and all citizens on earth. That’s why we installed an ocean-going Fijian “drua” canoe in the entrance here to remind everyone of the need to fill its sail with collective determination to make COP23 a success and confront the biggest challenge humanity has faced,” he said.
COP23 in Bonn will respond to that call with new progress and initiatives in the two critical and inter-linked areas of action:
• Governments working to increase climate action under the terms of the Paris Agreement and the UN Climate Change Convention
• Showcasing, fostering and launching new and expanding global climate action initiatives by all actors with a view towards better coordination that aligns efforts in more efficient, effective and transformative ways.
Patricia Espinosa, UN Climate Change Executive Secretary, said: “COP23 in Bonn will show to the world the two faces of climate change—firstly positive, resolute, inspiring momentum by so many governments and a growing array of cities and states to business, civil society leaders and UN agencies aligning to the Paris Agreement’s aims and goals”.
“Secondly, the reality check. The thermometer of risk is rising; the pulse of the planet is racing; people are hurting; the window of opportunity is closing and we must go Further and Faster Together to lift ambition and action to the next defining level, “she said.
Anticipated Highlights of COP23
The conference is itself a welcome mirror of international cooperation and coordination.
COP23 is organized by Bonn-based UN Climate Change, presided over by Fiji and organizationally and logistically supported by the Government of Germany, the region of North-Rhine-Westphalia and the City of Bonn.
Speakers reflect the broad spectrum of action. Those already confirmed include Marshall Islands President Hilda Heine, Arnold Schwarzenegger, UN Secretary-General António Guterres, Paris Mayor Anne Hidalgo, California Governor Jerry Brown, UN Special
Envoy Michael Bloomberg, Astronaut Thomas Pesquet, Unilever CEO Paul Polman, Scotland's First Minister Nicola Sturgeon, and Solar Impulse Explorer Bertrand Piccard.
Close to 20 country leaders are expected to attend, including President Emmanuel Macron of France and German Chancellor Angela Merkel.
Various transformative initiatives are anticipated including one from the UN on health and small islands; a platform to support engagement with Indigenous Peoples; a wide-ranging Gender Action Plan and the ramping up of a global risk transfer project that aims to deliver affordable insurance cover to an extra 400 million poor and vulnerable people.
Urgent Action to Stay Away from Tipping Points
The Paris Agreement is underpinned by national climate action plans known as Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) whose ambition needs to be collectively advanced over time to get on track to the Agreement’s temperature goal.
The Agreement’s goal is to keep the global temperature rise well below 2 degrees C and as close as possible to 1.5 degrees C.
Faster, immediate action is urgent because recorded pledges and efforts so far still have the world on track towards a 3C degree rise, maybe higher.
This risks the loss of the Greenland ice sheet, more sea level rise, significant damage to massive natural systems like the Amazon and the predictability of ocean circulation systems.
Currently, temperatures have already risen by around one degree Celsius over pre-industrial times.
CSOs present set of demands ahead of COP23 in Bonn, Germany
Civil Society Organisations from Africa, under the Auspices of the Pan African Climate Justice Alliance, are gearing up for the 23rd session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 23) to the UN Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that will take place at the headquarters of the UNFCCC Secretariat in Bonn, Germany beginning next week.
The CSOs have planned to speak with one loud voice to agitate for the speedy design and development of the Paris Rule Book to accelerate the implementation of the Paris Agreement.
“We hereby emphasize that there is a need for equal treatment of pre-2020 and post-2020 ambition and action to achieve pre-2020 targets,” reads their position paper in part.
Under PACJA, the CSOs have come up with eight demands for negotiation during COP23 as follows:
Demand 1: Global warming must be limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius this century.
Demand 2: Adaptation is crucial to protecting and promoting development gains, especially in Africa
Demand 3: Climate Financing should be long-term
Demand 4: Capacity building should be enhanced under the Paris Agreement
Demand 5: Loss and damage: Parties must commit to full implementation of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage
Demand 6: Technology development and transfer should be supported to enhance resilience and low carbon development
Demand 7: The gender agenda should be enhanced in the implementation of the Paris Agreement
Demand 8: Paris Rulebook: Design of a robust framework that takes note of transparency and accountability
The Pan African Climate Justice Alliance, will in collaboration with Oxfam and Cuts International, CSDevNet, CECOEDECON and WACSOF, organize a side event on the 8th of November, 2017 at Meeting Room 7, Bula Zone in Bonn, Germany to discuss how to make the Paris Agreement work for Africa with particular emphasis on enhancing transparency and defining the place of climate finance.
This will be preceded by a Pre COP23 CSO Consultative Forum on the 5th of November in Bonn, Germany.
PACJA will facilitate the training of African parliamentarians using the Climate Information and Services (CI/S) e -Learning module.
The Pan African Climate Justice (PACJA) will, in collaboration with Pan African Parliament (PAP), facilitate the training of African parliamentarians using the Climate Information and Services (CI/S) e -Learning module next year.
This was agreed after a training of trainers (ToT) held at Addis Ababa in Ethiopia.
Speaking during the meeting, PACJA Human Resources Lead Ann Kobia noted that the organization will, through the Pan African Media Alliance on Climate Change (PAMACC), organize a regional media training on CI/S using the CIS e-learning modules in an initiative that will also see the pan African organisation collaborate with regional media training institutions represented in the meeting.
The event that brought together parliaments, media training institutes, civil society and youth organisations from Benin, Cameroun, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Morocco, Senegal, Sierra-Leone, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and the East Africa Legislative Assembly (EALA) among others sought to impart trainers with knowledge on mainstreaming climate information and services into policy, legislation, plans and processes.
In their resolutions, the trainers noted that “national governments, local communities, farmers, grassroots organizations among others need timely, high quality, relevant and accessible information on temperature and rainfall, and the timing and severity of storms and climate extremes change for better planning and practices”, adding that climate information services, which is the collection, analysis, packaging and dissemination of climate information to specific users, are vital in supporting Africa’s response to climate change.
The trainers stressed the importance of awareness and training among legislators and other policymakers on climate change issues, saying that this is imperative for the formation of important partnerships and synergies for action on climate change.
They recommended that organisations and institutes that participated in the training should support the uptake of climate information and climate information service within their countries, stressing the importance of advocating for an increase of investment in CI and CIS infrastructure on a national level.
At the same time, the trainers recommended that participants conduct awareness campaigns among the public, legislators, and policymakers on the critical role of climate information and services in planning policies so as to achieve sustainable development.
They further recommended that participants mobilise resources through Government, private sector actors and other development partners to support awareness-raising and training workshop towards building a critical mass of skilled communities on climate information services and development issues.
GENEVA, Switzerland (PAMACC News) – Governments and non-state actors need to deliver an urgent increase in ambition to ensure the Paris Agreement goals can still be met, according to a new UN assessment.
The eighth edition of UN Environment’s Emissions Gap report, released ahead of the UN Climate Change Conference in Bonn, finds that national pledges only bring a third of the reduction in emissions required by 2030 to meet climate targets, with private sector and sub-national action not increasing at a rate that would help close this worrying gap.
The Paris Agreement looks to limit global warming to under 2°C, with a more ambitious goal of 1.5°C also on the table. Meeting these targets would reduce the likelihood of severe climate impacts that could damage human health, livelihoods, and economies across the globe.
As things stand, even full implementation of current unconditional and conditional Nationally Determined Contributions makes a temperature increase of at least 3°C by 2100 very likely – meaning that governments need to deliver much stronger pledges when they are revised in 2020.
Should the United States follow through with its stated intention to leave the Paris Agreement in 2020, the picture could become even bleaker.
The report does, however, lay out practical ways to slash emissions through rapidly expanding mitigation action based on existing options in the agriculture, buildings, energy, forestry, industry and transport sectors.
Strong action on other climate forcers – such as hydrofluorocarbons, through the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, and other short-lived climate pollutants such as black carbon– could also make a real contribution.
“One year after the Paris Agreement entered into force, we still find ourselves in a situation where we are not doing nearly enough to save hundreds of millions of people from a miserable future,” said Erik Solheim, head of UN Environment.
“This is unacceptable. If we invest in the right technologies, ensuring that the private sector is involved, we can still meet the promise we made to our children to protect their future.But we have to get on the case now.”
CO2 emissions have remained stable since 2014, driven in part by renewable energy, notably in China and India. This has raised hopes that emissions have peaked, as they must by 2020 to remain on a successful climate trajectory. However, the report warns that other greenhouse gases, such as methane, are still rising, and a global economic growth spurt could easily put CO2emissions back on an upward trajectory.
The report finds that current Paris pledges make 2030 emissions likely to reach11 to 13.5 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2e) above the level needed to stay on the least-cost path to meeting the 2oCtarget. One gigatonne is roughly equivalent to one year of transport emissions in the European Union (including aviation).
The emissions gap in the case of the 1.5oC target is 16 to 19 GtCO2e, higher than previous estimates as new studies have become available.
“The Paris Agreement boosted climate action, but momentum is clearly faltering,” said Dr. Edgar E. Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Minister of Environment and Energy of Costa Rica, and President of the 2017 UN Environment Assembly. “We face a stark choice: up our ambition, or suffer the consequences.”
Investing in technology key to success
To avoid overshooting the Paris goals, governments (including by updating their Paris pledges), the private sector, cities and others need to urgently pursue actions that will bring deeper and more-rapid cuts.
The report lays out ways to do so, particularly in agriculture, buildings, energy, forestry, industry, and transport. Technology investments in these sectors – at an investment cost of under $100 per tonne of CO2 avoided, often much lower – could save up to 36 GtCO2e per year by 2030.
Much of the potential across the sectors comes from investment solar and wind energy, efficient appliances, efficient passenger cars, afforestation and stopping deforestation. Focusing only on recommended actions in these areas – which have modest or net-negative costs – could cut up to 22 GtCO2e in 2030.
These savings alone would put the world well on track to hitting the 2°C target and unlock the possibility of reaching the aspirational 1.5°C target.
Non-state action and other initiatives
Actions pledged by non-state and sub-national bodies (such as cities and the private sector) could reduce the 2030 emissions gap by a few GtCO2e, even accounting for overlap with Nationally Determined Contributions. The world’s 100 largest emitting publicly traded companies, for example, account for around a quarter of global greenhouse emissions, demonstrating huge room for increased ambition.
The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol aims to phase out the use and production of hydrofluorocarbons – chemicals primarily used in air conditioning, refrigeration and foam insulation. If successfully implemented, it kicks-in too late to impact the 2030 gap but can make a real contribution to reaching the longer-term temperature goals.
By mid-century, reductions in short-lived climate pollutants, such as black carbon and methane, could help reduce impacts that are based on cumulative heat uptake and help to ensure a steady and lower temperature trajectory towards the long-term Paris goals.
Also, while the G20 is collectively on track to meet its Cancun climate pledges for 2020, these pledges do not create a sufficiently ambitious starting point to meet the Paris goals (see attached analysis of Cancun pledges). Although 2020 is just around the corner, G20 nations can still carry out actions that lead to short-term reductions and open the way for more changes over the following decade.
Avoiding new coal-fired power plants and accelerated phasing out of existing plants – ensuring careful handling of issues such as employment, investor interests and grid stability – would help.There are an estimated 6,683 operating coal-fired power plants in the world, with a combined capacity of 1,964 GW. If these plants are operated until the end of their lifetime and not retrofitted with Carbon Capture and Storage, they would emit an accumulated 190 Gt of CO2.
In early 2017, an additional 273 GW of coal-fired capacity was under construction and 570 GW in pre-construction. These new plants could lead to additional accumulated emissions of approximately 150 Gt CO2. Ten countries make up approximately 85% of the entire coal pipeline: China, India, Turkey, Indonesia, Vietnam, Japan, Egypt, Bangladesh, Pakistan and the Republic of Korea.
The report also looks at CO2 removal from the atmosphere – through afforestation, reforestation, forest management, restoration of degraded lands and soil carbon enhancement – as an option for action.
Additionally, a new report released by the 1 Gigaton Coalition on the same day shows that partner-supported renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in developing countries can cut1.4 GtCO2e by 2020 – provided the international community meets its promise to mobilize US$100 billion per year to help developing countries adapt to climate change and reduce their emissions.
“As renewable energy and energy efficiency bring other benefits – including better human health and jobs – I urge the international community to deliver on the funding they promised to support developing nations in their climate action,” said Ms Ine Eriksen Søreide, Norway’s Minister of Foreign Affairs. “Partner-supported renewable energy and energy efficiency projects and policies are vital for global decarbonization, as they provide key resources and create enabling environments in critical regions.”
The 1 Gigaton Coalition is supported by UN Environment and the Norwegian Government.
The benefits of a low-carbon society on global pollution – by, for example, cutting the millions of air pollution-related deaths each year – are also clearly illustrated in Towards a pollution-free planet, a report by the UN Environment Executive Director that will be presented at the upcoming United Nations Environment Assembly. The report lays out an ambitious framework to tackle pollution, including through political leadership, moving to sustainable consumption and production and investing big in sustainable development.
The Pan African Media Alliance on Climate Change (PAMACC) is an initiative facilitated by PACJA aimed at motivating and encouraging journalists to consistently engage in climate change and environmental reporting. PAMACC is one of Africa’s associations of environment journalists whose aim is to support journalists to improve their reporting on climate change.
Pan African Climate Justice Alliance Secretary General Mithika Mwenda has appealed to civil society organisations in Africa to simplify REDD+ discussions to allow more people to understand them.
Speaking when he opened the South-South Knowledge Exchange Workshop for FCPF Capacity Building Programme in Addis Ababa today (October 30th), Mithika noted that the topic has remained out of bounds for those without the technical knowledge of climate change, adding that it would be better if it was simplified by for instance renaming it Forest Management.
“Yesterday, we visited the Gulele Botanical Gardens and had a lot to gain practical lessons on what REDD+ means in practical terms. For the subject has remained abstract, and like any other climate change intervention programme, connection with broader development efforts has remained a mirage,” he said.
“There is no doubt, thus, that for REDD+ to be successful in reducing deforestation and forest degradation, it should contribute to broader sustainable development goals. How, for instance, does it connect with Ethiopia’s forest management and conservation programmes? How does it align with the country’s National Development blueprint?” he posed.
The PACJA Secretary General posed to the participants the question of how to balance between forest preservation and providing economic opportunities for the people.
“Should people leave forest standing in their midst when they can cut trees, burn charcoal and make money to meet their basic needs?”
He noted that the priority for African countries was to provide economic activities for its people, especially their women and the youth.
“The dilemma in this regard is that our countries rely heavily on extractive industries that are in turn driving the transformation of forest landscapes without generating much-needed employment opportunities for young people,” he added.
The Capacity Building meeting seeks to enhance the participation of civil society and local communities as a critical component for REDD+ implementation success, and deepen the understanding of the objectives of REDD+, the related risks, and opportunities and their potential role in forest management.
The meeting was organized under a two-year project supported by the Forest Carbon Partnership facility (FCPF) and aimed at building the capacity of African Civil Societies, Local Communities and forest dependent indigenous people on REDD+ which is being implemented by PACJA and Manyoito Pastoralist Integrated Development Organization (MPIDO).
Members of the Pan African Parliament and those of civil society organisations in Africa under the auspices of the Pan African Climate Justice Alliance (PACJA) have noted the importance of speeding up negotiations on the Paris Rule Book to catalyze climate action.
Speaking during the African Parliamentary Pre-COP 23 Preparatory workshop held in Midrand, South Africa on Saturday, the members noted the importance of the early adoption of the Paris Agreement.
In their final recommendations, the meeting noted that further negotiations should address mitigation by ensuring that the global community is called upon to highlight their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in particular from developed country Parties, in line with the global temperature goal to limit temperature increase to well below 2°C, with a target towards 1.5 °C.
They further noted that talks on adaptation must reflect the global responsibility for adaptation in accordance with the principles and provisions of the Paris Agreement.
The members recommended that further negotiations should prevail on the global community to provide resources for loss and damage and any related actions to address such losses.
The members registered concern over the slow approval of adaptation projects, adding that there seemed to be a lack of parity in the provision of finance between adaptation and mitigation.
The recommended that further negotiations must seek to reaffirm the obligation of developed country Parties to contribute in a transparent, measurable and verifiable manner towards global climate finance.
They called on negotiators to focus on developing frameworks for the recognition of African communities efforts leading to emission reduction, adding that the critical role of non-market mechanisms for African countries must be recognised.
At the same time, the members lauded the US non-state actors for their efforts and commitment to addressing climate change. They, however, noted that the threat of the US Government’s exit from the Paris Agreement would greatly impact the global climate leadership and provision of finance to developing countries.
The members made their recommendations during the Symposium for Climate, Energy Transition and Agricultural Adaptation Finance in Africa in Midrand, South Africa.
The Symposium, which brought together key stakeholders – parliamentarians, government representatives, civil society, academia and international organisations from across Africa, sought to interrogate the state of affairs in international climate change dialogue processes, with a deep review of Africa’s implementation of the provisions of the Paris Agreement.
The Pan African Climate Justice Alliance in conjunction with members of the Pan-African Parliament has lauded US citizens and non-state actors in some states and cities for their commitment to addressing climate change.
Coming just days before the COP23 that will take place in November in Bonn, Germany, the group noted that US’ exit from the Paris Climate Change Agreement would have great implications global climate leadership and provisions of finance to developing countries.
They were speaking during a pre-COP 23 preparatory workshop on 21 October 2017 during the symposium on “Climate, Energy Transition and Agricultural Adaptation Finance in Africa” that was held in Midrand, South Africa.
The US has over the past few months come under sharp criticism after President Donald Trump announced that he would withdraw from the agreement that seeks to cap emissions under 1.5 degrees Celsius in June this year.
Reacting to the announcement in June, Pan African Climate Justice Alliance Secretary General Mithika Mwenda noted that with Trump’s decision the responsibility would now be on all the citizens of the world to ensure that global warming is kept at under 1.5 degrees Celsius and to hold their governments responsible for their fair share of climate action.
“With the plan by Trump to withdraw the U.S. from the Paris Agreement, people power and international solidarity are the only hope we have of averting an unimaginable climate crisis which will fan the flames of every existing inequality and injustice. It will take all of us around the world, organising together, to hold the historic emitters like the U.S. under the watch of Donald Trump to account and ensure our governments also do their fair share of climate action in the next four years to keep global warming below 1.5 degrees. Trump’s decision doesn’t change that,” Trump said.
NAIROBI, Kenya (PAMACC News) - The private sector has been urged to collaborate with the public sector and civil society organisations to explore climate change related opportunities and seize them in the fight against the phenomenon.
“All we need to do, is to look at climate change from a common lens, identify where the problems are, and convert them into opportunities,” John Kioli, the Chairman of Kenya Climate Change Working Group told a preparatory meeting ahead of the forthcoming Conference of Parties on climate change (COP 23).
Dimitris Tsitsiragos, the Vice President of Global Client Services at IFC, a member of the World Bank Group, also agrees that climate change is creating opportunities for companies willing to innovate, pointing to report by IFC, which found that Eastern Europe, Central Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa could support up to $1 trillion in climate-related investments by 2020.
Tsitsiragos also refers to the massive solar power project in Morocco, where the private sector is playing a key role in the construction of a 510-megawatt solar plant in a desert with a capacity to provide power to 1.1 million people. The project, worth $2.6 billion, could help turn the North African kingdom into a renewable energy powerhouse and serve as a model for future public-private partnerships.
In Kenya, the Lake Turkana Wind Power plant is another example of a private sector investment in green energy. Once operational, the wind farm will provide 310MW of reliable, low-cost energy to Kenya’s national grid which is approximately 15 percent of the country’s installed capacity.
“We can explore so many other opportunities related to climate change,” said Kioli.
Another example is the M-KOPA Solar Company in Kenya, which sells solar home systems on an affordable mobile money payment plan, with an initial $35 deposit, followed by 365 payments of 45 cents daily. After completing the payment package, customers own a world-class solar home system, with multiple lights, phone charging and a radio.
During the Pre-COP workshop in Nairobi, Kioli further urged Kenya’s civil society organisations on climate change, the government delegation and the private sector to unite and talk with one voice as the country joins other global nations for the next set of negotiations on climate change in Bonn, Germany.
“This is a common problem that cuts across all sectors, and the only way forward as a country, is to have one common position that can be accepted by the African Group of Negotiators,” he said
So far, Kenya is committed to reducing total greenhouse gas emission by 30 percent, come the year 2030. However, representatives from the civil society observed that there must be a predictable source of income, hence the reason why all players must stay together ahead of the negotiations.
“We cannot just wait for the $100 billion commitment by the annex-one countries. We must also seek for alternative sources of funding right at the country level, and from development banks,” said Benson Kibiti from Caritas Kenya, representing the civil society.
Industrialised countries have already committed themselves to “mobilising jointly $100 billion a year by 2020, to address the needs of developing countries,” money which was expected to be come from public and private, bilateral and multilateral, including alternative sources of finance.
The 23rd session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 23) to the UN Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) will take place at the headquarters of the UNFCCC Secretariat in Bonn, Germany.
Presided over by the Government of Fiji, the UN Climate Change Conference will include the 23rd session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 23) to the UNFCCC, the 13th session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 13) and the 47th sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA 47) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI 47).