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Items filtered by date: November 2018

Energy is the key component in the mitigation response to combatting climate change. If dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate is to be avoided this century, a worldwide transition to renewable energy sources needs to take place urgently. The African continent is facing a particularly key moment in its development pathway, with a stark choice to be made between either following the same highcarbon path pursued by industrialized countries, or concentrating its growth on low-carbon climate resilient development. Demand for energy is exploding in Africa, as countries develop economically and per capita energy use rises as per capita incomes grow1. The continent has the natural resources required to provide renewable sources of energy, some of which are already being exploited. Global investments in renewable energy grew by 32 per cent between 2009 and 2010, to a record US$211 billion, with countries in Africa posting the highest percentage increase of all developing regions (excluding the emerging economies of Brazil, China and India). However there are still significant obstacles to the large scale and widespread provision of clean energy in Africa and a worrying dependence on fossil fuels remains. To transform the continent, economic growth must be decarbonized, which will require transformation of both energy policies and practices. A paradigm shift is needed, with a new approach that focuses on effective energy governance and the promotion of inclusive and sustainable growth. Choosing this path is essential both for the good of the planet and the development of Africa.

À l’échelle mondiale, la superficie forestière diminue au taux annuel le plus récent de 3,3 millions d’hectares entre 2010 et 2015 (Garzuglia, 2018). Les forêts jouent un rôle majeur en tant que réservoirs de carbone, la déforestation et la dégradation des forêts entraînent des émissions de gaz à effet de serre et réduisent la capacité des forêts à séquestrer le carbone, renforçant ainsi le réchauffement climatique.
La réduction des émissions résultant du déboisement et de la dégradation des forêts et le rôle de la conservation, de la gestion durable des forêts et du renforcement des stocks de carbone dans les pays en développement (REDD+) (voir encadré 1) est une initiative d’atténuation du changement climatique fondée sur des incitations financières conçues pour compenser les gouvernements nationaux et les acteurs sous-nationaux en échange de la réduction évidente des émissions de carbone dues à la déforestation et la dégradation forestière (CCNUCC 2010). REDD+ peut aider les pays à assurer une gestion durable des forêts et fournir des incitations pour s’attaquer à certains des principaux moteurs du déboisement et de la dégradation des forêts, tels que l’agriculture itinérante et la production et l’utilisation non durables et inefficaces du bois de feu.

Ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA) has generally been defined as the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services as part of the overall adaptation strategy to help people adapt to the adverse effects of climate change (SCBD, 2009). In the context of agricultural systems and natural resource protection, EBA is the employment of sustainable agricultural management practices that can make use of or take advantage of biological diversities, ecosystem services or ecological processes to help increase the ability of crops or livestock to adapt to climate variability and change (Jackson et al., 2010). EbA is increasingly being incorporated into national climate policies and the international climate debate as a viable yet to date largely under-utilized strategy for adapting to climate change. EbA is centred on biological approaches to soil erosion prevention, restoration and conservation aimed at maintaining ground cover to protect the soil service living bushes and grasses to build up terraces. It involves farmers, local communities in the design, implementation and maintenance of conservation schemes and provide economic benefits to them through higher crop yields.
There has been increasing severity of arid and semiarid conditions in some parts of Tharaka Nithi County over the past decade (Nderitu et al, 2016). This may be attributed to the adverse effects of climate change combined with unsustainable livelihood practices and ecosystem degradation. It has resulted to the diminishing of ecosystem based livelihood support systems and reduced resilience to Climate Change shocks. The indication is that the sustainable supply of ecosystem goods and services is no longer assured because the ecological integrity of the ecosystem has been negatively affected by Climate Change impacts and poor land and resource management practices. Therefore, there is an urgent need to adopt a “best fit” approach to sustainably protect the livelihood of people and the ecosystems on which their livelihood is dependent.

Globally, forest area is decreasing at a most recently reported annual rate of 3.3 million hectares from 2010 to 2015 (Garzuglia, 2018). Forest play a major role as carbon pools, deforestation and forest degradation leads to greenhouse gas emissions as well as reduces the capacity of forests to sequester carbon, thus enhancing global warming.
Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of the carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) refer to box 1 is a financial incentive-based climate change mitigation initiative designed to compensate national governments and sub-national actors in return for demonstrable reduction in carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (UNFCCC 2010). REDD+ can support countries in ensuring sustainable forest management, and provide incentives to address some of the main drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, such as slash-and-burn agriculture (shifting cultivation) and unsustainable and inefficient production and utilization of wood fuel.

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